Hole Array Inspection and Measurement

VisionGauge® Digital Optical Comparators for Fast, Easy, and Accurate Hole Array Inspection & Measurement

Some applications involve parts with a great many holes (for example: many thousands) that need to be checked. These parts can be made of different materials. We’ve worked on metal, carbon, ceramic and silicon parts like this. These parts are sometimes referred to as hole arrays or micro hole arrays.

These types of parts are used in different industries. Defense, semiconductor manufacturing, aviation and aerospace are a few industries that come to mind. Depending on the application, the holes can have different functions. Often, their presence has something to do with controlling a flow (of a gas, of particles, etc.). There could be different reasons for such flow control:  It might be for cooling purposes, for uniformity of dispersion, etc. Gas Distribution Plates, used in semiconductor manufacturing and plasma reactors, are a typical example of these types of parts.

These parts are typically difficult to manufacture, and the holes have obviously been included in the part’s design for a reason, i.e. they have a role to play, typically a key one. So, most often, these parts need to be inspected in great detail to ensure that they will meet their requirements.

microhole array inspection

There are many different parts, across many different industries, that have a great many holes that need to be inspected

Typically, the inspection needs to ensure that all of the holes are present and that their location and geometry are correct. Note that, in some cases and depending on functional requirements, the holes might not necessarily be round. In fact, we’ve come across quite a wide range of different hole geometries in these types of projects.VisionGauge automated hole inspection programs have no limits to hole geometry or placement

Inspecting 100% of the holes can be both challenging and extremely time consuming. Most inspection systems, to obtain the needed level of detail, proceed hole-by-hole. If a part has 18,000 holes, for example, then even if every individual hole can be dealt with quickly, this approach still takes a tremendous amount of time to cover the entire part. We’ve heard of parts for which a complete inspection required full days and even multiple days.

The VisionGauge® Digital Optical Comparator is especially well suited to applications where parts have a very large number (e.g. many thousands) of closely grouped holes as it can analyze all of the holes visible in the entire field-of-view at once, very quickly and accurately. This approach involves absolutely no compromise on accuracy. All the while, throughput is increased tremendously.

Motion operations (i.e. physically moving the part or the camera) are typically the most time-consuming steps in inspection and measurement programs. In applications involving a large number of closely grouped holes, the optimized approach offered by VisionGauge® drastically reduces the number of motion operations needed since it doesn’t involve hole-by-hole movement but rather simply ensuring that the entire part has been scanned through field-of-view-by-field-of-view coverage.

Furthermore, VisionGauge® can analyze every individual hole in the field-of-view extremely quickly (e.g. milliseconds) as it captures a great many measurement points (typically: thousands) almost instantly.

Multiple hole location inspection (starting image)
Multiple hole location inspection (selection image)

Analyzing all of the holes in VisionGauge®’s large field-of-view in a single operation provides for an enormous speedup

Outline of the Inspection Approach:

In broad terms, this approach involves the following steps:

  1. Scanning the part, field-of-view by field-of-view
  2. At every field-of-view:
    • Capturing an image
    • Locating the holes
    • Saving the hole data (i.e. X,Y location, & geometry)
  1. After the entire part has been scanned, comparing the measured hole data against the nominal hole data

So, in terms of programming, the program involves only a small number of instructions.

Scanning the Part

This is done using the software’s “Motion Control” tool, i.e:

Motion control step setup for microhole array inspection

As can be see above: we select the “Scan” mode, specify the 2 corners of the rectangular area to be scanned and also specify an overlap to ensure that every hole is completely visible in at least one field-of-view (i.e. we want to avoid that half the hole is visible in one field-of-view and that the other half is visible in the next field-of-view).

Capturing an Image

This is done using the software’s “Image Capture” tool.

Locating the holes and saving the hole data

This is done using the software’s “Counting & Sizing” tool, i.e.:

Hole array counting & sizing configuration

This is an extremely general-purpose tool and you shouldn’t be taken aback when you see all of the parameters in the above window as – for this application –  we don’t need most of them.

Here we simply set thresholds to separate the holes from the background (we can use adaptive thresholds that are extremely powerful…). We also tell the tool to disregard the holes touching the borders:  With the scanning overlap, this is how we ensure that every hole is seen completely at least once.

The images below, taken from a previous application of this type, illustrate this tool’s operation. Note that for reasons specific to this historical application, the images below are front illuminated (i.e. captured using reflected illumination). The holes thus appear dark and the part light. In most applications, we would use back (i.e. transmitted) illumination, which yields even more robust results.

Front-illuminated hole-array inspection

Raw image

Hole array image analysis

Analyzed image (i.e. the holes extracted are in red)

Comparing the measured hole data against the nominal hole data

This is done using an external “Hole Checker” library that we have developed for exactly these types of applications. It reads-in a user-supplied text file with the nominal hole data (i.e. X,Y location and diameter, in the most basic case). It then compares the measured hole data to the nominal hole data. Note that if (because of the Image overlap) a hole was measured more than once, it is only the first of these measurements that is considered.

This “Hole Checker” tool produces a text file with 1 line per (nominal) hole, every line containing:

  • The hole number (same as the input / nominal file)
  • The hole nominal position (same as the input / nominal file)
  • A PASS or FAIL indicating if the hole was found
  • If the hole was found: the measured X & Y hole position
  • If the hole was found: the measured hole diameter

Note that VisionGauge®’s “Map View” tool can also be used to provide a graphical layout of the results, as well as allow easy “operator review” of the results (i.e. click on a hole and the software brings it back in the middle of the field of view, so that the operator can revisit / review, etc.).

VisionGauge®’s extensive CAD-Comparison capabilities

Of course, VisionGauge® also has extensive CAD-Comparison capabilities (i.e. patented CAD Auto-Align™ & CAD Auto-PASS/FAIL™ tools). These can also be useful in this application, at the very least for “quick inspection & verification” purposes. For example: bring up the CAD file and quickly manually “move around the part” and generally asses the alignment of the holes to the CAD data. This can provide a quick confirmation / sanity-check as to whether or not “things look good” and glaring defects will “jump out” at the operator.


VisionGauge® offers powerful and unique tools that allow for highly optimized inspection and measurement of parts with a large number of holes, much faster than with traditional approaches. The results produced by VisionGauge® remain very accurate, to the instrument’s full resolution. Furthermore, these fast, accurate, and fully-automated inspections are very easy to setup with VisionGauge®.

Download a .pdf version of this VisionGauge® Digital Optical Comparator Application Note.

Read more about other applications VisionGauge® software and systems are being used to solve.

Industrial Gas Turbine (IGT) Bucket Inspection

High-Accuracy Inspection and Measurement of Industrial Gas Turbine (IGT) Buckets

Industrial Gas Turbine buckets, blades, and nozzles encounter high temperatures and extreme force. Modern-designed gas turbine blades and turbine buckets operate under extreme industrial stresses, and the ever-increasing performance requirements of land-based gas turbines requires that they be manufactured to meet tighter and tighter requirements. Blades and buckets represent some of the most critical parts in power generation systems and their fir tree dovetail root form is where some of the tightest-tolerance requirements are found.

Installation of a bucket on a gas turbine disk

The Super-Extended 500 Series VisionGauge® Digital Optical Comparators are designed to carry out very high-accuracy inspection and measurement of large parts and heavy loads and, as such, they are perfectly suited to the inspection and high-accuracy measurement of Industrial Gas Turbine (IGT) Buckets.

IGT Bucket Profile Inspection

VisionGauge® systems – with their patented CAD Auto-Align™ and CAD Auto-Pass/Fail™ tools – are the perfect solution to check the bucket’s root form profile as well as the profile’s location relative to the part’s datum set.

VisionGauge® is extremely fast, produces very high-accuracy operator-independent results, and can automatically produce complete inspection reports.

500 Series VisionGauge® Digital Optical Comparator - Super-Extended Travel Configuration
The super-extended travel configuration 500 Series VisionGauge® Digital Optical Comparator for inspection of large and heavy parts.
Super-Extended Travel 500 Series VisionGauge® Digital Optical Comparator inspecting fir tree / root forms on buckets
Fir Tree / Root Form Inspection with the Super-Extended Travel 500 Series VisionGauge® Digital Optical Comparator

The Super-Extended Travel Configuration of the 500 Series VisionGauge® Digital Optical Comparator accommodates up to 60″ of travel and supports heavy loads up to 300 pounds. These systems are very robust and ready to operate directly on the shop floor.

VisionGauge®’s patented inspection technology quickly and accurately computes and displays the deviation from nominal at a part’s control sections and compares the results to bi-directional tolerances. The result of each comparison can be collected in a report and an overall Pass/Fail or Go/No-Go result can be output for each part. You can check parts against their CAD data across the entire range of travel, beyond the optical field-of-view – completely automatically.

Contact us for more information about how our VisionGauge® Digital Optical Comparators can meet and surpass even the strictest of your Industrial Gas Turbine application requirements, including IGT bucket inspection and measurement.

Learn about other applications regularly being solved with VisionGauge® Digital Optical Comparators, including additional applications in the Power and Energy / Industrial Gas Turbine market.

Cooling Holes Inspection / Cooling Hole Measurement and Verification

 The 700-Series VisionGauge® Digital Optical Comparator is the Perfect Solution for EDM- and LASER-Drilled Holes and Slots Inspection and Measurement

The 700 Series VisionGauge® Digital Optical Comparator is widely used by manufacturers across a broad range of industries (including aerospace and power generation) to inspect and measure EDM- and LASER-drilled cooling holes and slots:

  • Automatically verify hole presence & accurately measure hole locationCooling Hole Inspection - Verifying Presence, Shape, and Location
  • Supports both round and shaped holes
  • 5 axes of motion (X, Y, Z, Rotary, Tilt) to properly view parts from all sides & angles
  • Quickly, easily, and accurately inspect 100% of the holes on your parts
  • Robust shop floor design
  • Can output the hole offsets which can be used to modify EDM drilling programs
  • Mounting system allows your parts to go directly from the EDM drilling machine to the inspection and measurement system without re-fixturing (quick & easy and also minimizes stack-up error, etc…)
  • The system can be supplied with the same working envelope as your EDM drill. If you can drill it, we can check it!
  • Holes can be checked either one at a time, looking straight down each hole’s nominal axis (ideal for coated parts, to minimize errors due to coating thickness variations) or multiple holes can be checked at once, viewing them at an angle (which is even faster and well suited for uncoated parts or parts with a uniform coating thickness)
  • The system has an extended depth of field, so that everything is perfectly in focus regardless of the part’s geometry (even in areas of very high curvature) as well as a very long working distance (so that there is lots of clearance between the part and the entire optical system to comfortably accommodate large and unusually-shaped parts)
  • Extremely powerful “adaptive” feature-detection software tools are able to accurately find and locate EDM-drilled holes on different surfaces, with different reflectivity, at different viewing angles, etc…
  • Specialized software tools are especially well suited to deal with burrs and splatter
  • Automatically create reports and collect measurements, statistics, images and other data for complete documentation
  • Fast and intuitive “operator review” mode allows the operator to quickly revisit out-of-tolerance areas, etc…
  • The ideal system for inspection and measurement of cooling holes on aircraft engine and IGT (Industrial Gas Turbine) components (blades, vanes, heat shields, shrouds, etc.). Parts can be either (ceramic) coated or uncoated.

EDM-drilled or Laser-drilled cooling hole measurement and inspection

Quickly, accurately, and easily carry out cooling holes inspection and measurement of round and shaped holes.

Automatically Verify Hole Presence and Location

measurement and inspection of EDM- and LASER-drilled drilled holes and slots

Supports Both Round & Shaped Holes, Anywhere on the Part!

An extended-travel machine with 24″ x 24″ x 24″ travel and a trunnion configuration for large and heavy parts is also available, along with other customizations.

Ring with cooling holes
Ring with cooling holes. For the larger rings, it is typical to use an extended-travel 700 series system to check the hole presence and measure the hole location and geometry.

The 700-series VisionGauge® Digital Optical Comparator is a very cost-effective, perfectly adapted solution for the measurement and inspection of EDM-drilled holes. It is rapidly becoming the new standard in the industry!

Download a .pdf version of this VisionGauge® Digital Optical Comparator Application Note here.